As the telephone system moved from human operators to an automated system, the need for a quick way to reach emergency services became a societal goal. The first emergency number was 999 in the UK in 1937. In the 1960s, national emergency services were launched in North America using the number 9-1-1. In Europe, similar services were launched using 1-1-2.

These systems were designed to enable rapid response to emergencies in two ways:

1. Any call to that number was routed to a geographical center called a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) where personnel would be available to talk to the c...

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